Baking without gluten poses unique challenges but also opens up possibilities to discover new flavor combinations. With the right techniques and ingredients, you can create gluten-free baked goods that are just as delicious as traditional recipes. This article covers the basics of gluten-free baking, ingredients to stock your pantry with, recipe substitutions, and tips to help you master gluten-free cakes, cookies, breads, and more.
Understanding Gluten-Free Baking
Gluten is a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. It provides structure and elasticity to baked goods. When baking gluten-free, alternative flours lack the gluten strands needed to trap rising air bubbles. This can result in crumbly or dense results. However, with a few adjustments, you can produce tasty gluten-free baked goods.
The keys to success include using binder ingredients to add moisture and hold recipes together. You’ll also want to experiment with flavorful gluten-free flours until you find the right blend for each recipe. Letting batters rest and rise properly allows time for gluten-free flours to absorb liquid and solidify. With practice, you’ll be baking up tasty gluten-free treats in no time.
Essential Gluten-Free Baking Ingredients
Stock your pantry with these essentials:
- Gluten-free flours – Rice, oat, coconut, almond, and cassava flours provide gluten-free options. Mix for best results.
- Xanthan gum – A binder that helps replicate the properties of gluten to add stability. Use just a sprinkle.
- Eggs – Help add rise and structure in place of gluten.
- Leaveners – Baking powder and baking soda help baked goods rise. Use generous amounts in gluten-free recipes.
- Oil – Helps keep gluten-free baked goods moist. Opt for olive, avocado, or coconut oil.
- Milk substitutes – Like almond, coconut or oat milk to replace cow’s milk.
- Natural sweeteners – Try coconut sugar, maple syrup, honey, or fruit purées to sweeten.
Handy Gluten-Free Substitutions
When adapting traditional recipes, these substitutions help achieve great results:
- 1 cup all-purpose flour = 1 cup gluten-free flour blend
- For bread recipes, add 1 egg per 1 cup of gluten-free flour
- Increase leaveners by 50% more than the original recipe calls for
- If a recipe calls for milk, substitute almond or coconut milk
- Binders like xanthan gum or guar gum can help mimic gluten
- Add flax or chia seeds for moisture and structure
- Opt for oil instead of butter to keep gluten-free baked goods moister
- Let doughs and batters rest before baking to allow flours to absorb moisture
Tips for Gluten-Free Cakes
Gluten-free cakes tend to be more fragile, so follow these tips:
- Grease pans well and line with parchment paper to prevent sticking
- Fold wet and dry ingredients gently using a spatula to avoid overmixing
- Allow batter to rest for 10 minutes which allows flours to absorb moisture
- Bake cakes at a slightly lower temperature, around 325°F to prevent burning
- Cool cakes completely before frosting or moving them
- Use milk, cream cheese, or nut-based frosting rather than stiff buttercream
- Serve cake directly from the pan or transfer gingerly using a spatula
Making Gluten-Free Cookies
Here are tips for chewy, delicious gluten-free cookies:
- Chill cookie dough thoroughly before baking to prevent spreading
- Scoop mounds of dough using an ice cream scoop for evenly sized cookies
- Flatten dough balls slightly with the palm of your hand before baking
- Bake cookies on the middle rack of the oven to prevent bottom burning
- Let cookies cool on the baking sheet for 5 minutes before transferring to a wire rack to set
- Stick to soft cookies rather than crispy ones, which become too brittle without gluten
- Substitute chocolate chips, shredded coconut, nuts, seeds or dried fruit to add texture
Baking Gluten-Free Breads
Breads and yeast doughs are tricky without gluten, but these strategies help:
- Utilize a bread machine to knead dough thoroughly without overhandling
- Add an egg or milk substitute to add moisture and fat for rise
- Incorporate a few tablespoons of butter or oil into doughs for softness
- Opt for flatter bread shapes like soda bread or focaccia that require less rise
- Use xanthan or guar gum to add elasticity needed for raised loaves
- Let dough rise completely to double the size before baking
- Allow breads to cool fully on a wire rack before slicing to prevent crumbling
Comparison of Gluten-Free Flours
|Almond||Nutty, sweet||Absorbs moisture, dense||Cookies, pie crusts|
|Coconut||Mildly tropical||Fluffy, crumbly||Cakes, muffins|
|Cassava||Neutral||Light, tender||Flatbreads, pancakes|
|Brown Rice||Nutty, earthy||Dry, gritty||Breads, crackers|
|Oat||Rich, grainy||Soft, dense||Cookies, bars|
Gluten-free flours vary greatly in flavor, texture, and ideal application. Combining a few flours and gums mimics all-purpose flour more closely. Test different blends in each recipe.
Comparison of Gluten-Free Quick Breads
|Banana||Moist, flexible||May sink or be gummy|
|Pumpkin||Dense, holds shape||Dry, bland flavor|
|Zucchini||Moist, easy to make||Prone to crumbling|
|Cornbread||Rustic texture||Gritty, crumbly|
|Muffins||Great vehicle for add-ins||Can be too dry|
Quick breads without yeast make good beginner gluten-free projects before tackling doughs that require rise. Add-ins like fruit or veg provide moisture while breads like banana and pumpkin naturally hold together better than others.
Frequently Asked Questions
What can I use instead of xanthan gum?
Ground chia or flax seeds provide similar binding and moisture. Gelatin or guar gum also work. Start with just 1/2 to 1 teaspoon substitute per cup of flour.
Do I have to use special pans for gluten-free baking?
Specialty pans are not required. Standard metal or silicone bakeware works well. Lining pans with parchment helps prevent sticking. Grease generously.
Can I make gluten-free substitutes for pizza dough or pasta?
You can make gluten-free pizza crusts using rice flour, tapioca starch, and xanthan gum. For pasta, try blending rice flour, tapioca, and potato starch. However, results vary widely from traditional recipes.
Which is healthier – gluten-free or whole grain flour?
Whole grains retain more nutrients but lack problematic compounds found in some gluten-containing grains. Those with gluten intolerance or sensitivity must stick to gluten-free. But for most, whole grain products offer the best nutrition.
How do I prevent dense or dry gluten-free baked goods?
Be sure to include binder ingredients in each recipe like eggs, oil, or xanthan gum to add moisture. Allow doughs and batters to rest before baking. Check products early to avoid over-baking which dries them out.
Can you make gluten-free bread in a bread maker?
Yes, many bread makers have a gluten-free cycle. The machine kneads dough thoroughly. Add a bit more liquid or binding agents to account for lack of gluten development. Allow doughs to rise adequately before baking.
Is gluten-free baking more expensive?
Gluten-free specialty ingredients cost more than conventional wheat flour. But simpler recipes using just a few ingredients like rice flour, eggs, milk, baking powder, and sugar can fit most budgets.
Are there health benefits to gluten-free eating?
For those with celiac disease or gluten sensitivity, gluten-free eating is medically necessary. For others, removing gluten provides no proven health benefits, unless you have an allergy or reaction to gluten.
What is the best gluten-free flour mix?
There is no singular best mix. Combining flours like rice, tapioca, sorghum and/or almond flour generally yields good results. You may need to tweak flour ratios through trial and error based on each recipe’s particular texture needs.
Can you make gluten-free baked goods without special ingredients?
Yes, you can bake gluten-free using simple whole food ingredients like rice flour, nut flours, milk, eggs, oil, honey, and baking powder. While results vary from traditional recipes, delicious gluten-free baked goods are achievable without specialty binders.